Adaptado por Félix Molinuevo, FMSI Sistemas de Informática ::: Actualizado: 20170118
I wanted to run a complete mail server for my company. I decided to encrypt and authenticate connections for both sending and receiving mail, and to handle receiving mail with IMAP, rather than POP. The final setup can handle large amounts of both incoming and outgoing mail and is easy to use…
I had two basic options when selecting how to handle accounts. Either every valid mail account could be tied to a valid user account on the mail server, or I could set up a backend such as an SQL or LDAP database to handle authentication that wouldn't be tied to the server.
Based on my needs and relatively small number of potential users, I decided to go with mail delivery to local user accounts, while retaining support for virtual domains. This way I can support any domain with an MX record pointing to the mail server, and not just my own domain, but mail will be delivered to and authenticated against SASL user accounts.
Since most of our servers are running Debian Wheezy, I changed the former howto to reflect the changes. All packages except the Horde Groupware are straight out of the Debian package management system.
The software used is:
Before installing software make sure the current system is up to date:
aptitude update aptitude upgrade
At this point everything should be ready to go. The default MTA on Debian, Exim, should be uninstalled by apt automatically when postfix is installed. Everything else is probably new software.
aptitude install postfix
This installs a postfix system that is ready to be setup for TLS (SSL) encrypted connections. I chose reasonable defaults to the questions the debian installer asks. Anything that needs to be changed can be changed later without much trouble. At this point local delivery probably works, but the system is far from complete. I didn't worry about it at this point, since the way the system will be set up I also need to tie postfix into SASL and IMAP, and probably send it to Spamassassin for filtering as well.
Next install all the needed packages from project Cyrus, namely the SASL library, the Cyrus admin and client programs, and the Cyrus IMAP daemon. Although it is available, I will not install the corresponding Cyrus POP3 server. This is an IMAP only setup.
aptitude install libsasl2-2 libsasl2-modules sasl2-bin aptitude install cyrus-admin cyrus-clients cyrus-common cyrus-imapd
Start with configuring Cyrus-SASL for authentication in general. Both the SMTP server, postfix, and the IMAP server, Cyrus-IMAP, will authenticate using another piece of daemon software, saslauthd. Saslauthd will handle the actual authentication of users. With this in mind, start first by configuring SASL to authenticate against the system accounts using PAM.
Edit /etc/default/saslauthd to enable the daemon and set the authentication mechanism.
If you want to use another authentication mechanism, this is where you would set it. The system here authenticates against SASL accounts, so sasldb is the relevant method.
Start up the server now to test it.
service saslauthd restart
Now create some user account in SASL:
saslpasswd2 -c username
Then test it.
testsaslauthd -u username -p password
If it works, you should see
0: OK "Success."
as a result. If so, saslauthd works ok. Now shut it back down.
service saslauthd stop
In order Postfix can communicate to SASL and Cyrus (check later configuration), you must mount /var/run/saslauthd and /var/run/cyrus inside the postfix chroot. This can be accomplished by using a bind mount. To implement this, add the following line to /etc/fstab.
/var/run/saslauthd /var/spool/postfix/var/run/saslauthd none rw,bind 0 0 /var/run/cyrus /var/spool/postfix/var/run/cyrus none rw,bind 0 0
Create the directory the mount will reside in as well.
mkdir -p /var/spool/postfix/var/run/saslauthd mkdir -p /var/spool/postfix/var/run/cyrus
And mount them.
mount /var/spool/postfix/var/run/saslauthd mount /var/spool/postfix/var/run/cyrus
Because now since Wheezy /var/run is a soft link to /run, and this directory is a tmpfs, you must add these two lines to /etc/rc.local for mounting those directories at boot time (more info in https://wiki.debian.org/ReleaseGoals/RunDirectory).
The same location is now accessable outside the chroot at /var/run/saslauthd and inside the chroot at /var/spool/postfix/var/run/saslauthd (which postfix sees as /var/run/saslauthd). This avoids editing the saslauthd init script, messing with dpkg, and creating symbolic links. The only visible side effect is an extra listing from the
df command which doesn't know that the bind mount isn't an actual separate disk.
As an advice, don't change other things related to SASL authentication, as is written in some README.Debian in Postfix package, because we're using another method to make Postfix communicate to SASL.
There are a lot of steps necessary to get postfix up and running. It needs to be set up to connect to saslauthd, to use SSL, and to link with cyrus-imapd and Horde. This section will go over the first stages of configuring postfix, but later sections will cover the other parts.
Edit the file /etc/postfix/main.cf and add the following lines to the file.
# SASL Auth Settings smtpd_sasl_local_domain = smtpd_sasl_auth_enable = yes smtpd_sasl_security_options = noanonymous broken_sasl_auth_clients = yes smtpd_recipient_restrictions = permit_mynetworks, permit_sasl_authenticated, reject_unauth_destination
Be sure to have the proper name for your server:
myhostname = host.domain.com
And the proper final destination, relay host and accept mails from your network, if you want it:
mydestination = host, host.domain.com, localhost.localdomain, localhost.localdomain, localhost, whatever.com relayhost = aaa.bbb.ccc.ddd mynetworks = 127.0.0.0/8 192.168.1.0/24
If you need SASL authentication on your relayhost/smarthost, add following lines:
# Authentication on smarthost smtp_sasl_auth_enable = yes smtp_sasl_security_options = smtp_sasl_password_maps = hash:/etc/postfix/client_passwords
If you need this, you should add in /etc/postfix/client_passwords the pair username/password for your relayhost:
and later execute postmap to compile such info:
Also edit /etc/postfix/sasl/smtpd.conf and put in the lines:
pwcheck_method: saslauthd mech_list: PLAIN LOGIN
You also need to add postfix to the sasl group:
adduser postfix sasl
Reload postfix and check to see if auth is enabled.
service postfix reload telnet localhost 25 Trying 127.0.0.1... Connected to localhost. Escape character is '^]'. 220 dev.ev-15.com ESMTP Postfix (Debian/GNU)
EHLO domain.com. If the server responds with something like the following, then authentication is enabled in the server. Then type
quit to exit.
250-mail.domain.com 250-PIPELINING 250-SIZE 10240000 250-VRFY 250-ETRN 250-AUTH LOGIN PLAIN 250-AUTH=LOGIN PLAIN 250 8BITMIME
Postfix should now tie authentication into itself using saslauthd. Note that the advertised authentication methods are only PLAIN and LOGIN, both of which are plain text based. To enable one of the shared secret methods, such as CRAM-MD5 or DIGEST-MD5, a different authentication method would need to be used. To avoid delivering these plain passwords over the internet, wrap everything up in an encrypted layer using SSL/TLS.
Note: this section is needed for Cyrus IMAP to support SSL.
Certificates are required to use TLS and SSL. There are generally two classes of certificates: self-signed certificates and certificates signed by one of the major certificate authorities. If you need implicitly trusted certificates that you can use and let your customers be comfortable with, you'll probably want to go to a CA and purchase them. With smaller sites and users who understand certficate warnings, self-signed certificates are easy to create and still allow encryption. They will throw up warnings in mail clients and web browsers, but the certificates can usually be permanently accepted by users.
If the primary goal is encryption and the trust issues are not major, then a self-signed certificate is adequate.
The following steps will create a new CA, certificate request, and certificate.
Start with making a new CA.
cd /usr/lib/ssl/misc ./CA.pl -newca
Answer the questions as they come with reasonable information. The value for CN (Common Name) should be the hostname of the server that the certificates will be used on.
Now make the server certificate request.
Now sign it
Copy the files to /etc/ssl/certs
cp -iva newcert.pem /etc/ssl/certs/ cp -iva newreq.pem /etc/ssl/certs/ cp -iva newkey.pem /etc/ssl/certs/ cp -iva demoCA/cacert.pem /etc/ssl/certs/
Note: in Debian, Postfix have SSL support configured. You can add just the line “smtpd_tls_auth_only” in order to require users to encrypt their connections.
Edit /etc/postfix/main.cf again and add the following lines to the file.
# TLS Information smtpd_use_tls = yes #smtpd_tls_auth_only = yes smtpd_tls_key_file = /etc/ssl/certs/newkey.pem smtpd_tls_cert_file = /etc/ssl/certs/newcert.pem smtpd_tls_CAfile = /etc/ssl/certs/cacert.pem smtpd_tls_loglevel = 3 smtpd_tls_received_header = yes smtpd_tls_session_cache_timeout = 3600s tls_random_source = dev:/dev/urandom
Edit /etc/postfix/master.cf and uncomment the following lines.
tlsmgr fifo - - n 300 1 tlsmgr smtps inet n - n - - smtpd -o syslog_name=postfix/smtps -o smtpd_tls_wrappermode=yes -o smtpd_sasl_auth_enable=yes submission inet n - y - - smtpd -o syslog_name=postfix/submission -o smtpd_tls_security_level=encrypt -o smtpd_sasl_auth_enable=yes
This will enable TLS, the smtps port, and the dedicated port 587 for mail submission.
#smtpd_tls_auth_only = yes will be uncommented later so that users are required to encrypt their connections. For now though leave it alone until testing is complete. To test, telnet in again, as above, and see if the line
250-STARTTLS is there. If so then TLS should be available.
This guide uses Cyrus-IMAP, largely because it is high performance, and because of SIEVE server-side filtering. One thing to note about this package is that it takes the “black box” approach to IMAP mail delivery. Mail is never delivered to a user's home folder, but rather to a set of dedicated cyrus folders.
Open the file /etc/cyrus.conf for editing and choose which services to run. Unless POP access is desired, leave only IMAP, secure IMAP, and SIEVE. For extra security turn off IMAP to force users to connect over SSL. Under the SERVICES section, uncomment the line
imaps cmd="imapd -s -U 30" listen="imaps" prefork=0 maxchild=100
and comment out the pop3 lines.
Uncomment following line, in order Squatter can index daily all mailboxes:
# reindex all mailboxes (fulltext) daily squatter_a cmd="/usr/sbin/squatter" at=0517
This setup uses LMTP. The default socket set in the file should be fine. The line for sieve should already be uncommented, but check it just to be sure. Everything else in the file can stay the way it was.
Now open the file /etc/imapd.conf. Most of the settings can be left the way they are, but there are a few more to set. As always, read the comments for the various settings in the file. The directive
sieveusehomedir should be set to false so that remote sieve management with Horde will work.
The way this setup is working, the following values should be set:
admins: cyrus allowplaintext: yes sasl_mech_list: DIGEST-MD5 CRAM-MD5 PLAIN LOGIN sasl_pwcheck_method: saslauthd
Notes about sasl_mech_list: DIGEST-MD5 is the best mechanism. CRAM-MD5 is better than PLAIN and LOGIN. The last two are needed just in case.
Set the following values in imapd.conf, leaving the rest alone.
tls_server_cert: /etc/ssl/certs/newcert.pem tls_server_key: /etc/ssl/certs/newkey.pem tls_client_ca_file: /etc/ssl/certs/cacert.pem tls_client_ca_dir: /etc/ssl/certs Old versions: tls_cert_file: /etc/ssl/certs/newcert.pem tls_key_file: /etc/ssl/certs/newkey.pem tls_ca_file: /etc/ssl/certs/cacert.pem tls_ca_path: /etc/ssl/certs
Change ownership of files inside /var/lib/cyrus and /var/spool/cyrus:
chown -R cyrus: /var/lib/cyrus/* chown -R cyrus: /var/spool/cyrus/*
service cyrus-imapd restart
At this point, you should check if Cyrus starts. If not, please check syslog file.
If you see some error like this:
DBERROR: opening /var/lib/cyrus/tls_sessions.db: cyrusdb error
It's because such file does not exist. Create it with the following commands:
touch /var/lib/cyrus/tls_sessions.db chown cyrus: /var/lib/cyrus/tls_sessions.db
And restart Cyrus:
service cyrus-imapd stop ; service cyrus-imapd start
Check again that Cyrus is started.
Then, start saslauthd again.
service saslauthd start
The way things are set up, only the cyrus user can administer the cyrus server. Set a password for the user cyrus and then su to the cyrus user.
passwd cyrus su cyrus
You should create the user cyrus in SASL, too:
saslpasswd2 -c cyrus
Now add an IMAP user. Usernames are prefaced with “user.”, followed by the login name of the user. For a user account jimmy, the mailbox would be named “user.jimmy”.
Log into the cyrus admin tool and create a new mail user to match a local delivery name that postfix knows. Do this for each local account that receives mail, or postfix will throw errors.
$ cyradm localhost cyradm> cm user.username ... repeat for all users ... cyradm> quit
You can log into cyradm with user cyrus directly too, without using a cyrus system account (I prefer this way):
cyradm -u cyrus localhost
Additionally it's needed to add a mail alias for every mail account, because we're using users created in SASL, but not in system. So Postfix needs to know how to deliver mail.
Edit /etc/aliases adding for every mail account something like:
It's an alias for the same account. Later, execute “newaliases” command to compile the new aliases.
Edit the file /etc/postfix/main.cf and add the following line to the file, removing or commenting out any other
mailbox_transport = lines.
mailbox_transport = lmtp:unix:/var/run/cyrus/socket/lmtp
That transport will work just if you mount /var/run/cyrus inside Postfix's chroot, as explained before.
Create the lmtp group and add postfix to that group.
addgroup lmtp adduser postfix lmtp
Fix the socket directory permissions and restart both mail servers.
dpkg-statoverride --force --update --add cyrus lmtp 750 /var/run/cyrus/socket service postfix restart service cyrus-imapd restart
Cyrus should now be linked to Postfix. All mail from Postfix will be handed off to the Cyrus server for delivery. This will fail if Postfix tries to deliver mail for a user Cyrus doesn't know about, so make sure that when new users are added to the mail system that the corresponding mailboxes are also added with cyradm.
If the mail server will handle more than one domain but deliver all mail to local users, then the following information will configure this behavior. This is based on the guide at http://www.postfix.org/VIRTUAL_README.html.
Create the file /etc/postfix/virtual and populate it with entries like the following
email@example.com realuser1 firstname.lastname@example.org realuser2 email@example.com realuser1 # send all mail for domain3 to realuser3 @domain3.com realuser3
The left side maps to the email address people will send mail to, and the right side maps to the local system account that mail will be delivered to (through Cyrus IMAP). Once this file has been created, it needs to be hashed for postfix to use, so run the postmap command to do this:
Edit /etc/postfix/main.cf and add the following lines.
# Virtual Domain Settings virtual_alias_domains = domain1.com, domain2.com, domain3.com virtual_alias_maps = hash:/etc/postfix/virtual
This tells Postfix which domains to deliver to, and what file to use to check where to deliver the mail. It's pretty simple to get going. Reload Postfix again and things should work. Basic system setup should be complete at this point.
The most useful information for troubleshooting is found in the /var/log/mail.log file. Open a console and use the command
tail -f /var/log/mail.log
to watch mail server activity. Send a few test mails to an address on the server, and use the server to send test mails to other accounts. If errors occur use the information in the mail log file to try to track them down.
After things are working well it is a good idea to uncomment the line “smtpd_tls_auth_only = yes” and change the value of “smtpd_tls_loglevel” to something lower, such as 2.
When you are testing, sometimes you need to deactivate “duplicate supression” feature of Cyrus. Do it adding in /etc/imapd.conf the following:
The new version 2.4 of Cyrus IMAP in Debian Wheezy insert a entry in syslog every time it try to access user_deny.db so log became full of such messages. To avoid filling logs, you can create a file called /etc/rsyslog.d/cyrus-imapd.conf with the following line inside:
if $programname == 'cyrus' and $msg contains_i 'fetching user_deny' then ~
When it's done, restart rsyslog daemon.
aptitude install spamassassin spamc
No further tuning needed.
aptitude install rar unrar arj zip unzip bzip2 gzip cpio file lzop nomarch cabextract ripole \ rpm pax p7zip zoo ncompress aptitude install clamav clamav-base clamav-daemon clamav-freshclam clamav-docs
Libclamav and other packages will be automatically installed.
Make sure the directive 'AllowSupplementaryGroups' exists in the file /etc/clamav/clamd.conf.
aptitude install amavisd-new
Add the user 'clamav' to the group 'amavis':
adduser clamav amavis
Restart the daemons:
service clamav-daemon restart service clamav-freshclam restart
If our hostname in /etc/hostname is not a FQDN (Fully Qualified Domain Name), that is to say it's a name of the type “server” instead of a name of the type “mail.domain.com”, we will have to modify the file /etc/amavis/conf.d/50-user, adding:
$myhostname = "mail.domain.com";
so that Amavis has the right value of the variable $myhostname.
In the same configuration file, add the following two lines in order Amavis to send quarantine spam/virus to mail accounts:
$virus_quarantine_to = "virus-police\@mail.domain.com"; $spam_quarantine_to = "spam-police\@mail.domain.com";
Activate the use of ClamAV and the SpamAssassin spam filter in the Amavis config by editing the file /etc/amavis/conf.d/15-content_filter_mode and commenting out the following lines:
@bypass_virus_checks_maps = ( \%bypass_virus_checks, \@bypass_virus_checks_acl, \$bypass_virus_checks_re); @bypass_spam_checks_maps = ( \%bypass_spam_checks, \@bypass_spam_checks_acl, \$bypass_spam_checks_re);
If you wanna spam being blocked and sent to spam-police account, edit /etc/amavis/conf.d/20-debian_defaults:
$final_spam_destiny = D_DISCARD;
and comment the following line if you don't want Amavis to modify the subject of the emails marked as spam:
# $sa_spam_subject_tag = '***SPAM*** ';
If you wanna spam pass to user's accounts, edit /etc/amavis/conf.d/20-debian_defaults:
$final_spam_destiny = D_PASS;
add to /etc/amavis/conf.d/50-user the following line changing the names as needed in your system, and comment the line who says about mail for spam:
@local_domains_maps = ([ ".$mydomain", 'sub.example.net', '.example.com', 'localhost' ]); # $spam_quarantine_to = "spam-police\@mail.domain.com";
Finally, comment out the following line if you want Amavis to modify the subject of the emails marked as spam:
$sa_spam_subject_tag = '***SPAM*** ';
This way we let emails marked as spam pass and rely on the user using SIEVE filters (or the filters provided by his or her email client) to filter the spam by looking at the headers. Viruses are discarded.
Here you are my recommended configuration for allowed and banned attachments. You may want to evaluate the needs of your company and finetune it as needed. Comment out these lines in 20-debian_defaults file:
qr'^application/x-msmetafile$'i, qr'^\.wmf$', qr'^message/partial$'i, qr'^message/external-body$'i, [ qr'^\.(Z|gz|bz2)$' => 0 ], [ qr'^\.(rpm|cpio|tar)$' => 0 ], [ qr'^\.(zip|rar|arc|arj|zoo)$'=> 0 ], qr'.\.(ade|adp|app|bas|bat|chm|cmd|com|cpl|crt|emf|exe|fxp|grp|hlp|hta| inf|ins|isp|js|jse|lnk|mda|mdb|mde|mdw|mdt|mdz|msc|msi|msp|mst| ops|pcd|pif|prg|reg|scr|sct|shb|shs|vb|vbe|vbs| wmf|wsc|wsf|wsh)$'ix, qr'.\.(mim|b64|bhx|hqx|xxe|uu|uue)$'i, qr'^\.(exe|lha|tnef|cab|dll)$',
I configure next lines in 20-debian_defaults file usually with following values (very strict spam filter):
$sa_tag_level_deflt = -1000; # add spam info headers if at, or above that level $sa_tag2_level_deflt = 1.0; # add 'spam detected' headers at that level $sa_kill_level_deflt = $sa_tag2_level_deflt; # triggers spam evasive actions $sa_dsn_cutoff_level = 10; # spam level beyond which a DSN is not sent
Add these to /etc/postfix/master.cf:
smtp-amavis unix - - y - 2 smtp -o smtp_data_done_timeout=1200 -o smtp_send_xforward_command=yes -o disable_dns_lookups=yes -o max_use=20 127.0.0.1:10025 inet n - y - - smtpd -o content_filter= -o local_recipient_maps= -o relay_recipient_maps= -o smtpd_restriction_classes= -o smtpd_delay_reject=no -o smtpd_client_restrictions=permit_mynetworks,reject -o smtpd_helo_restrictions= -o smtpd_sender_restrictions= -o smtpd_recipient_restrictions=permit_mynetworks,reject -o smtpd_data_restrictions=reject_unauth_pipelining -o smtpd_end_of_data_restrictions= -o mynetworks=127.0.0.0/8 -o smtpd_error_sleep_time=0 -o smtpd_soft_error_limit=1001 -o smtpd_hard_error_limit=1000 -o smtpd_client_connection_count_limit=0 -o smtpd_client_connection_rate_limit=0 -o receive_override_options=no_header_body_checks,no_unknown_recipient_checks
And add this to /etc/postfix/main.cf:
service postfix restart
In addition to basic mail service, it is also possible to provide webmail service using the Horde Groupware Webmail, spam filtering with SpamAssassin, and virus filtering with ClamAV.
Note: these steps could vary from some server to another. For example, you could configure Apache using dynamic virtual hosts
To use webmail, first set up Apache if it is not already working. To install Apache:
aptitude install apache2 libapache2-mod-php5
Since users will log in to Horde using a web form it is a good idea to enable SSL on the web server. Apache uses a certificate of a slightly different form than has been used in this guide so far. It combines the site certificate with the private key from the certificate request. To create this file copy the private key from newreq.pem and the signed certificate from newcert.pem into a new file /etc/apache2/ssl/apache.pem.
Enable the SSL module.
Copy the default configuration file in /etc/apache2/sites-available/default to a new file in /etc/apache2/sites-available, such as default-ssl. Edit the file. Change the
<NameVirtualHost *> line to
<NameVirtualHost *:443> the
<VirtualHost *> line to
<VirtualHost *:443> and add the following lines to the file inside the VirtualHost directive:
SSLEngine on SSLCertificateFile /etc/apache2/ssl/apache.pem
Edit the default site file and change the line
<NameVirtualHost *> to
<NameVirtualHost *:80> and the line
<VirtualHost *> to
Now open the file /etc/apache2/ports.conf and add the following line to the file.
Enable the new SSL-enabled site.
Warning: at the moment of writing this, 20170122, Debian Stretch is shipping just with PHP 7.0 which is not officially supported by Horde Team on Horde 5.2. So, you will need to add -f modifier to pear install commands below. As far as I can see Horde works fine anyway as noted by their developers
Horde Groupware Webmail 5 is a really powerful groupware application, including webmail. To install it, you should follow the install guide (see bibliography)
This is a quick and simple recipe perhaps not enough for every server:
First, in php.ini for Apache, change the following; modify for your needings:
date.timezone = America/Argentina/Buenos_Aires
Second, add locales for the language/s you need, for example, es_ES, en_US, and so:
And, finally follow these steps:
apt-get install mysql-server # mysql -u root -p CREATE DATABASE horde; GRANT ALL ON horde.* TO horde@localhost IDENTIFIED BY 'PASSWORD'; FLUSH PRIVILEGES;
pear channel-discover pear.horde.org
pear install horde/horde_role pear run-scripts horde/horde_role
pear install -a -B horde/webmail
pear install -a -B horde/groupware
pear upgrade -a -B -c horde
That's pretty much it. The mail server can now send and receive mail, authenticate users, encrypt connections with SSL, and provide webmail and server-side mail filtering. Good luck with it.
FMSI Sistemas de Informática
Based on documentation written by Steve Block, 29 January 2005
This guide wouldn't be possible without the developers of all the software packages used here. I would like to extend my thanks to all of the developers. Thanks are also due to the Debian developers and package maintainers for their sensible setup of the base Debian system and its corresponding packages.
Thanks to Steve Block for teach me how to build my first mail server; and thanks to him again for show me DokuWiki, the wiki we're using now, simple, easy, and fast.